This Kenyatta University Web Page is dedicated to reporting and communicating the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease that was first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and on 11 February 2020, it announced a name for the disease: Covid-19. WHO then, proposed a number of measures to interrupt the spread of the virus: that all countries put in place strong measures to detect the disease early, isolate and treat cases, trace contacts, and promote social distancing measures commensurate with the risk.
As of 10th May 2020, the total Global Covid-19 cases stood at 4,181,218 with 283,877 deaths 1,493,492 recovered cases. By the same date Africa reported a total of 64,752 cases, 2,301 deaths and 22,683 recoveries while in Kenya the numbers stood at 672 Coronavirus Cases, 32 deaths and 239 recoveries. These numbers are despite the concerted efforts by the global community to contain the virus spread. Fatalities from those infected have been particularly high on people with health condition and the elderly with low immunity. The spreading pattern of Covid-19 is high in crowded areas that increased possibility of infection through contact and affected the breathing system. This prompted countries to institute lock-down measures and travel restrictions to contain the virus and allow countries to beef up health facilities for quarantine and/or isolation of confirmed cases.
In Kenya the first case of Covid-19 infection tested positive on 12th March 2020 and was from a Kenyan female who had travelled from USA through UK arriving on 5th March 2020. This case is recorded in WHO Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report 54 of 14th March 2020. With that confirmation, the Government of Kenya immediately put in place measures to reduce population movement and congregation of large numbers of people by closing Schools, Colleges and Universities and by requesting institutions to allow workers to work from home. The number of cases have since risen steadily to 672 cases as of 10th May 2020. On 25th March 2020, the President of the Republic of Kenya announced a government plan for a nationwide dusk-to-dawn curfew that started on 27th March. Further measures by the government on 6th April 2020 placed Nairobi, Mombasa, Kwale and Kilifi under in-and-out of the areas travel ban to protect the country from further spread of the deadly Coronavirus. You can view the various Public Gazette Notices, Presidential Orders and other Public Legal Information on Kenya’s Response to COVID-19 here http://kenyalaw.org/kenyalawblog/kenyas-response-to-covid-19/
Cabinet Secretary, Ministry of Health, Hon. Mutahi Kagwe makes an announcement of the first confirmed Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) case in Nairobi at the steps of Harambee House on 13th March 2020.
Despite the measures, by 10th May 2020, the number of confirmed Covid-19 cases in Nairobi and Mombasa had risen to 370 and 227 respectively marking the two cities as Covid-19 hotspots. As a result, two areas in the cities, Eastleigh in Nairobi and Old Town in Mombasa were put under lockdown and identified as trouble hotspots. This has been associated with lack of compliance to government directives on distancing and self-protection, crowding, poor public health behaviour, high population densities and movement patterns.
Kenyatta University Covid-19 response
In support of various Government of Kenya initiatives, Kenyatta university has responded in various ways. First, the university has offered some of her facilities for isolation of suspected Covid-19 cases or those who have been tracked as contacts of a confirmed case. Second, in response to limited vital Covid-19 management ventilator resources in hospital ICU facilities, a team of Engineering, Medicine and Nursing students from the respective Kenyatta University Schools and their Deans and Faculty embarked on a ventilator innovation TIBA Vent prototype on 3rd April 2020. The ventilator takes charge of stressed lungs and enables the patient to breath well without lung pressure. The technology is patented with the Kenya Industrial Property Institute KE/U/2020/1401. Development of the prototype was financed by Kenyatta University with additional support from the Kenya National Innovation Agency and Betika, a private company. The ventilator samples were submitted to the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) for inspection and approval of standards. This is awaiting the KEBS report before production that is planned to take place in KU School of Engineering workshop. The assembly line has a capacity to produce 50 ventilators per day. Kenyatta University is seeking for a patent with ARIPO then tap into the Sub-Saharan Africa market
A display Tiba Vent Ventilator prototype under development since April 2020 and financed by KU with the first 3 models of the actual ventilators supported by the Kenya National Innovation Agency and Betika to address Covid-19 Kenya needs
Kenyatta University through the Office of the Registrar Corporate Affairs has instituted measure to support communities in need and that live within the proximity of the university. In two separate occasions KU made donations of family food packs, soap, sanitizers and face masks to the needy in the neighbouring Kahawa Wendani Ward. The donations were made on 1st May 2020 and on 11th May 2020 to 120 beneficiary families identified by the area Chief. The face masks were produced by the Department of Fashion and Design, while the department of Chemistry produced the sanitizers both at the University. In addition, working with the area Chief, the University identified 20 high population traffic and small business areas and donated hand-washing water tanks to be placed in the identified area.
DVC Administration, Prof. Fatuma Chege explains the value of constant hand washing as a measure of improving public hygiene that is a critical in the fight against Covid-19 during the launch of KU outreach to neighbouring communities in need.
The Kenyatta University Geospatial Information Technology Lab has developed map visual products in support of communicating about the Covid-19 virus in Kenya. The products are posted on the KU Web Page that is dedicated to reporting and communicating the spatial location and spreading pattern of confirmed Covid-19 cases using two separate dashboards that are updated daily. The mapping and visualization of the concentration of the detected Covid-19 cases, the number of deaths, and number of recoveries are presented. To put into context the population distribution across the country, the Kenya Population and Housing Census (KPHC) 2019 was used. The KPHC data is in the custody of the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and the reports can be found here: https://www.knbs.or.ke/?page_id=3142
The 2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census reports are in 4 Volumes capturing in statistical tables: Population by County and Sub-County; Distribution of Population by Administrative Units; Distribution of Population by Age, Sex and Administrative Units; and Distribution of Population by Socio-Economic Characteristics.
The Kenyatta University Geospatial Information Technology Lab: Standing is Dr. Hari Prassad of ICPAC-IGAD in a training session in the lab on Flood and Drought Hazard Assessment.
The map showing the dashboard displays of the spatial spread of Covid-19 in the country and are based on county statistics. In the Daily Status report dashboard, the left panel presents a pie chart graph of the number of detected cases by gender and a bar graph showing the counties with the highest confirmed cases. The main map section shows total number of confirmed Covid-19 cases per county with absolute analysis (Total number of confirmed infections per county) and per capita analysis per county (the ratio of infections to a population of 1 Million). The map section has sliders that help in resizing the bubble symbol in the map.
The graph section at the bottom of the map is dynamic and has the daily timeline series of the both the confirmed cases and death cases in a line graph representation. This supports visualization of the trend of Covid-19 spreading in Kenya. When the daily change button is toggled, the graph displays the daily infection change in a bar graph. A selection of a county will render the graph to the trend of the confirmed case statistics for that county. The graph is responsive, each click on the timeline series in turn changes the map content in accordance with the number of infections recorded on the date clicked: Explore the application here
The second dashboard spatially illustrates the virus outbreak spread in each County of Kenya based on the confirmed cases reported daily by the Ministry of Health. The data is overlaid on the Kenya Population and Housing Census (KPHC) data in the custody of Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) at the county level. The left panel shows the total number of Confirmed cases, total number of patients recovered, total number of Deaths and total number of ICU beds and the top 5 leading counties in terms of the number of cases confirmed in Kenya. The web map at the centre, shows the number of cases per county displayed in circles weighted based on the number of confirmed cases and also shows the total population per county. The display of the weighted circles in the right panel shows the COVID 19 Confirmed cases and the Kenya Population Census data legends. The Worldometer global Covid-19 monitor is shown for reference.:
Kenya Covid-19 Isolation and Quarantine Centres
The identified isolation centres and the quarantine facilities per county are also mapped for response and mitigation. The web map displays the location and distribution of identified and inspected isolation facilities that are being used in the fight against Covid-19 pandemic in Kenya. Most of the facilities are boarding facilities in Education institutions and centres, hospitals and health facilities, and hotels with hospitality facilities located in various parts of the country. The isolation facilities are for the purpose of separating and restricting movement of the individuals who may have come into contact with confirmed Covid-19 infected persons or may have travelled from abroad. Among the identified isolation centres, 68 of them spread across 40 counties with a total bed capacity of 1451 have been declared under the Medical Practitioners & Dentists Act Cap 253 Section 5 (3) (j) as suitable to offer support as government supported backup facilities for confirmed cases . The list was released by the Kenya Health Professions Oversight Authority (KHPOA) after a joint inspection by health regulatory authorities: REF: KMPDC/COVID19/22Vol I/32.
The isolation facilities are all presented in Red points with those inspected presented in Blue points on the image Web Map. To view the Blue Points of inspected facilities, one needs to swipe the Glass Bar running across the image towards the left. Tap on the points to view the details of the isolation facilities. Access the isolation centres application here
The Kenya Healthcare Federation (KHF) has been publishing information on Covid-19 quarantine facilities in Kenya. KHF Covid-19 Response team shared the list of quarantine centres and facilities as approved by the Ministry of Health and the Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentist Council (KMPDC). The Ministry of Health issued a directive on the quarantine facilities and conditions. Foreigners and local citizens arriving in the country are required to undergo a mandatory quarantine for at least 14 days, all expenses taken care of by those in quarantine. Victims exhibiting symptoms of coughing or fever are also required to voluntarily present themselves to the nearest quarantine facility for testing and on the contrary they will be forced to. The government also emphasized that medical quarantine will be extended an extra 14 days for those who test positive for Covid-19 and will be confined in government quarantine facilities: Access the quarantine centres application here.
KU Covid-19 website also provides geo-location analysis that gets you up to speed with the ‘Jua mtaa yako, kaa rada page’ for the Nairobi County area. Kenyatta University with the support of the University management, the relevant schools and Departments and the participation of both current and former students will accelerate the use of the geospatial tools to continue supporting the visualization of the daily data from Covid-19 reports made by the Ministry of Health.
The Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease – Covid-19
The Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease – Covid-19 was an outbreak of pneumonia cases linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, China. It was first announced by the National Health Commission (NHC) of the People’s Republic of China, and Wuhan Health Commission (WHC) on 29th December 2019. With globally confirmed cases reaching 9826 and 213 deaths in one month WHO declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and proposed a raft of measures to reduce the general risk of transmission of the acute respiratory infections from the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease: COVID-19:
- Implementing a comprehensive risk communication strategy to regularly inform the population on the evolution of the outbreak, the prevention and protection measures for the population, and the response measures taken for its containment
- Enhancing public health measures for containment of the outbreak; avoiding unprotected contact, frequent hand-washing and sanitization, practice cough etiquette (maintain distance, cover coughs and sneezes with disposable tissues or clothing, and wash hands)
- Ensuring the resilience of the health system and protect the health workforce
- Enhancing surveillance and active case finding.
- Collaborating with WHO and partners to conduct investigations to understand the epidemiology and the Covid-19 evolution and measures to contain it.
- Sharing relevant data on human cases.
- Continuing to identify the zoonotic source of the outbreak, and particularly the potential for circulation with WHO as soon as it becomes available.
- Conducting exit and entry screening at international airports and ports, with the aim of early detection of symptomatic travellers for further evaluation and treatment.
The full WHO Country & Technical Guidance – Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can be accessed here: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance
WHO, since 21st January 2020 has been giving daily scientific briefs and situation reports that can be accessed here: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports
Valuable is also the WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard – https://covid19.who.int/ and the from where the individual country trends can be accessed.
The Worldometer COVID-19 daily data trends is available at https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ and the COVID-19 Map – Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html